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Technology to Grow Single Crystals of NaI:Tl and Fabrication of Radiation Detectors

Crystal Growth System

1 Crystal Growth System

Technology to grow single crystals of NaI:Tl using the modified Bridgman technique is developed in BARC. Single crystals of size 50 mm diameter and 60 mm length can be grown in this system. Further, processing of grown crystals and coupling of the scintillator crystal to photo-multiplier tubes to fabricate nuclear radiation detectors has been offered in the technology.

Parties with sound financial background, relevant experience in nuclear radiation detectors, having clean room atmosphere and with conditioned ambient would be preferred.

Crystal Growth System

1 Crystal Growth System

Single crystals of alkali halide inorganic scintillators are useful as nuclear radiation detectors in gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography applications. These crystals are grown in silica crucibles using the vertical Bridgman technique. Crystals of NaI:Tl coupled to photo-multiplier tubes have exhibited excellent energy resolution of less than 7% at 662 keV, suitable to be used as radiation detectors in gamma-ray spectroscopy for the identification of radio-active nuclides.

BARC has developed a novel crystal growth system based on the modified Bridgman technique to grow high quality, crack-free single crystals of NaI:Tl. Single crystals of NaI:Tl up to 50 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length could be grown with almost 100% yield. Expertise has been developed to process the grown NaI:Tl crystals and fabricate scintillator detectors using photo-multiplier tubes (PMT).

SPECIFICATIONS

  • Crystal dimension (mm)

: Diameter : 50 mm, 
: Length : 60 mm

  • Density [g/cm3]
: 3.67
  • Melting point [°C]
: 651
  • Energy resolution
: Less than 7% at 662 keV
  • Hygroscopic
: Yes
  • Wavelength of emission max. [nm]
: 420
  • Light yield [photons/keVγ]
: 38
  • Primary Decay time (ns)
: 250


APPLICATIONS

  • Gamma-ray spectrometer
  • High energy radiation detectors
  • Nuclear Physics Experiments
  • Area monitor
  • Whole body counting
  • Oil well logging
Crystal Growth System

1 Crystal Growth System


INTRODUCTION
Single crystals of alkali halide inorganic scintillators are useful as nuclear radiation detectors in gamma-ray spectroscopy and radiography applications. These crystals are grown in silica crucibles using the vertical Bridgman technique. Crystals of NaI:Tl coupled to photo-multiplier tubes have exhibited excellent energy resolution of less than 7% at 662 keV, suitable to be used as radiation detectors in gamma-ray spectroscopy applications.

BARC has developed a novel crystal growth system based on the modified Bridgman technique to grow high quality, crack-free single crystals of NaI:Tl. Easy extraction of the grown crystal is achieved using a uniquely designed silica crucible and an ingenious furnace design that has precise temperature control mechanism and highly accurate motor for lowering the crucible. Single crystals of NaI:Tl up to 50 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length could be grown with almost 100% yield. The technology also covers processing of the grown NaI:Tl crystals and fabrication of scintillator detectors using photo-multiplier tubes (PMT).

SPECIFICATIONS

  • Crystal dimension (mm)

: Diameter : 50 mm, 
: Length : 60 mm

  • Density [g/cm3]
: 3.67
  • Melting point [°C]
: 651
  • Thermal expansion coefficient [°C-1
: 47.4x10-6
  • Cleavage plane 
: <100>
  • Hardness (Mohs) 
: 2
  • Hygroscopic
:Yes
  • Wavelength of emission max. [nm]
: 420
  • Refractive index @ emission max
: 1.85
  • Primary Decay time (ns)
: 250
  • Light yield [photons/keVγ]
: 38
  • Energy resolution
: Less than 7% at 662 keV

APPLICATIONS

  • Gamma-ray spectrometer
  • High energy radiation detectors
  • Nuclear Physics Experiments
  • Area monitor
  • Whole body counting
  • Oil well logging

REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION

Infrastructural Requirements

Space :

  • About 600 sq feet (25x25 sq. ft) roofed area with proper arrangement of cleanness (preferably Class 10,000), dust proof with controlled temperature (25±1°C) and humidity (<55%) with continuous electricity

Equipment :

  • Growth Furnace
  • Dehydration unit
  • Weighing balance
  • Glove Box with humidity control (RH < 1%)
  • Cutting machines
  • PMT and associated electronics for testing
  • Glass blowing facility for sealing
  • Laminar flow bench

Consumables :

  • Vacuum desiccators
  • Quartz crucible
  • Raw material
  • Process chemicals (alcohol, optical grease, oil)
  • Emery papers
  • Alumina powder
  • Liquid nitrogen

Manpower Requirement

  • One B.Sc. (Physics) and one M.Sc. (Physics) or equivalent degree.

Electrical Power Requirement

  • 220 V, 50 Hz, Single phase, 15 A
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General License Fee : ₹ 500,000.00 (Five Lakh)

General Royalty : 0%