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LOW-CARBON FERRO-ALLOYS (FeV, FeMo, FeNb, FeW, FeTi, FeCr & FeB)

The detailed R&D efforts have been directed towards thermit reduction technology for the production of low carbon speciality ferro-alloys. The list includes FeV, FeMo, FeNb, FeW, FeTi, FeCr & FeB which are produced from their respective oxide intermediates. Production of ferro-alloys with low-carbon (< 0.1%) content & high recovery of the primary metal 87 to 90% for FeMo, < 90% for FeV, 85 to 89% for FeW, 90% for FeNb. The rapid completion of the reduction essentially a non-furnace process and does not require external heating. Low carbon ferro-alloys are used for deoxidation of steels as well as for introduction of the alloying elements in the steel during the steel making process. By addition of specialty ferroalloys during the production of steel, the properties (mechanical, joining etc) of the steels are upgraded.

The detailed R&D efforts have been directed towards thermit reduction technology for the production of low carbon speciality ferro-alloys. The list includes FeV, FeMo, FeNb, FeW, FeTi, FeCr & FeB which are produced from their respective oxide intermediates. The scale of development operation has been confined to a maximum of 10 kg batches of the oxides. In the case of molybdenum and vanadium, processes have also been developed to treat their indigenous resources to suitable oxide intermediates for their further conversion to ferro-alloys.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

The manufacturing process for these ferro-alloys involves following major steps:

  • Reactor preparation
  • Raw-material preparation
  • Charging
  • Triggering
  • Separation

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE THERMIT PROCESS

Production of ferro-alloys with low-carbon ( < 0.1%) content

High recovery of the primary metal   

  • 87 to 90% for FeMo
  • < 90% for FeV
  • 85 to 89% for FeW
  • 90% for FeNb
  • Rapid completion of the reduction
  • Essentially a non-furnace process and does not require external heating.
  • Low capital investment and low maintenance cost.
  • Can be operated on semi-continuous mode.

APPLICATIONS

  • Ferroalloys are used for deoxidation of steels as well as for introduction of the alloying elements in the steel during the steel making process.
  • By addition of specialty ferroalloys during the production of steel, the properties (mechanical, joining etc) of the steels are upgraded. 

INTRODUCTION

The detailed R&D efforts have been directed towards thermit reduction technology for the production of low carbon speciality ferroalloys. The list of ferroalloys includes FeV, FeMo, FeNb, FeW, FeTi, FeCr & FeB, which are produced from their respective oxide intermediates. The scale of development operation has been confined to a maximum of 10 kg batches of the oxides. In the case of molybdenum and vanadium, the thermit process may be adopted using their oxide intermediates produced during processing of indigenous resources, for further conversion to ferro-alloys.

APPLICATION

Ferroalloys are used for deoxidation of steels as well as for introduction of the alloying elements in the steel during the steel making process. By addition of specialty ferroalloys during the production of steel, the properties (mechanical, joining etc) of the steels are upgraded.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

The manufacturing process for these ferro-alloys involves following major steps:

  • Thermit Reactor preparation
  • Raw-material preparation
  • Charging
  • Triggering
  • Separation

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE THERMIT PROCESS

  • Production of ferro-alloys with low-carbon ( < 0.1%) content

  • High recovery of the primary metal 

    • 87 to 90% for FeMo
    • < 90% for FeV
    • 85 to 89% for FeW
    • 90% for FeNb
  • Rapid completion of the reduction
  • Essentially a non-furnace process and does not require external heating.
  • Low capital investment and low maintenance cost.
  • Can be operated on semi-continuous mode.

INFRASTRUCTURE

  • EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Jaw crusher, Hammer mill, Blender, Heating furnace, reduction vessel, pulverizer etc. would be required.

Analytical equipments such as standard gravimetric / volumetric tools or spectrometer or XRF needed

INFRASTRUCTURE REQUIREMENT

  • Power: The requirement of power is comparatively high for heating furnaces.
  • Building:  About 50 sq. meter constructed area for installing the size reduction equipments and heating furnace along with some open area, for carrying out the thermit reduction operation.

RAW MATERIALS 
Raw materials are mostly available in the local market. However, the oxides of Mo, V, and W are normally imported.

MANPOWER

The manpower requirements depend on the capacity and the extent of automation. 1 Metallurgist, 1 Chemist & 2 skilled lab technicians are required to start the production.

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